What is fertilizer?
Fertilizer is the food and a source of
nutrition for plants, and it is given to plants to promote their growth.
Usually fertilizer is applied either in the soil for intake by plant roots or by foliar feeding, for
intake through leaves. There are, basically, two types of fertilizer- organic (composed
of organic matter) and inorganic (containing inorganic chemicals). These both types
of fertilizers are easy to apply and fruitful for good production.
For a plant to grow and thrive, it needs a number of different chemical
elements. The most important are:
-Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Plants get these elements from air and water.
-Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (N.P.K). These three elements are called
Macronutrients which are most important and can be found in most packaged fertilizers.
-Sulfur, Calcium, and Magnesium are Secondary nutrients and are needed medium amounts.
-Boron, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc, etc. These are
called Micronutrients which are less needed.
The most important elements among these (that are needed the most for a plant) are
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.
Fertilizers are provided to plants in different proportions. On the basis of
plant requirements to grow well or on the basis of nutrition, Fertilizers have been
divided in two major groups: Primary and Secondary. There are
three major types of Primary fertilizer: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (Macronutrients) which
are called N.P.K for short.
Without these primary elements the plant simply
can't grow, because it can't make the foods necessary for it to grow. As for secondary
fertilizers, there are many elements: Calcium, sulfur, Magnesium. Calcium, Sulfur,
and Magnesium are major
secondary types, and other minor elements include: Boron, Chlorine,
Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Zopper, Molybdenum etc. These are called Micronutrients.
In the past, all types of fertilizer were called manure, but now this term has been
changed. Today fertilizers have been divided in different categories on the basis
of used materials while producing them.
Division of fertilizers
Major division of fertilizers are:
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